Drug Resistance in Tuberculous Lymphadenitis:Molecular Characterization

Gebeyehu Assefa, Kassu Desta, Shambel Araya , Selfu Girma , Elena Hailu , Adane Mihret , Tsegaye Hailu,

Melaku Tilahun , Getu Diriba , Biniyam Dagne , Abay Atnafu , Nigatu Endalafer, Adugna Abera, Shiferaw Bekele, Yordanos Mengistu, Kidist Bobosha , and Abraham Aseffa

Academic Editor: Juraj Ivanyi

Background Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) epidemic in high-TB-incidence countries, particularly Ethiopia, remains a significant challenge. As a result, we investigated the drug resistance, common gene mutation, and molecular characterization of mycobacterial isolates from patients with suspected tuberculous lymphadenitis (TBLN).

Methodology. A cross-sectional study of 218 FNA samples from TBLN patients inoculated on Lowenstein-Jensen media was carried out. The culture isolates were identified as MTB by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the difference-9 (RD9) test region. In addition, the GenoType MTBDRplus assay tested the first and second-line MTB drugs, and the spoligotyping strain-dependent polymorphism test was determined.

Results. Among the 50 culture-positive isolates, 14% (7/50) had drug resistance caused by a gene mutation. Out of these, 4 (8%) isolates were mono-resistant to isoniazid drug, which is caused by a gene mutation in katG in the region of interrogated at codon 315 in the amino acid sequence of S315T1, and 3 (6%) isolates were resistant to both rifampicin and isoniazid drugs. The mutation was observed for katG (at codon 315 with a change in the sequence of amino acid S315T) and rpoB (at codon 530–533 with a change in the sequence of amino acid S531L (S450L)) genes. The most prevalent spoligotypes were orphan and SIT53 strains. Conclusion. The predominance of INH mono-resistance poses a critical risk for the potential development of MDR-TB, as INH mono-resistance is a typical pathway to the occurrence of MDR-TB. The orphan and SIT53 (T) strains were the most common in the study area, and a drug-resistant strain caused by a common gene mutation could indicate the transmission of clonal-resistant strains in the community.

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