Tuberculosis Treatment Outcome and Associated Factors Among Tuberculosis Patients Linked to Tuberculosis Treatment Clinics in Ethiopia, 2023: A Multi-Center Retrospective Study

Ayenew Berhan,Andargachew Almaw, Yenealem Solomon, Biruk Legese,
Shewaneh Damtie, Mulat Erkihun, Zewuditu Alebachew, Tahir Eyayu,,Getu Abeje,
Birhanu Getie

Background: Tuberculosis is a communicable disease, mainly caused by the bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Globally, TB is the ninth leading cause of death, with developing countries bearing most of the burden. The discovery of chemotherapy lead to significant improvements in patient survival. Therefore, this study aimed to assess Tuberculosis treatment outcomes and associated factors in South Gondar Administrative Zone Governmental Hospitals, Northwest Ethiopia, 2023.

Method and Materials: A hospital-based retrospective study was conducted from July 1 to August 30, 2022, at South Gondar zone public hospitals. The data was entered into Epi-data version 4 and exported to STATA version 14. A binary and multivariable logistic regression was computed at a 95% confidence interval. Variables with a p-value less than 0.25 in the bivariable analysis were chosen for multivariable logistic regression analysis, and variables having a p-value of less than 0.05 in the multivariable analysis, were considered to have significant associations with the dependent variable.

Results: The study included 400 tuberculosis patients, and the overall successful treatment outcome was 89.0% (95% Confidence Interval: 85.5–91.7). In this study, study participants who tested positive for HIV were approximately three times more likely to have unsuccessful treatment outcomes (Adjusted odds ratio = 3.07; 95% Confidence Interval = 1.49–6.16.5; P = 0.002) relative to HIVnegative patients. On the other hand, patients with sputum-positive were more likely to have a successful treatment rate (Adjusted odds ratio = 0.08; 95% Confidence Interval = 0.011–0.638, P = 0.002) relative to sputum-negative TB patients.

Conclusion: The overall treatment success rate was 89.0%, which was lower than the global milestone target of > 90% set for 2025, and the prevalence of TB-HIV coinfection was 16.5%. In this study, HIV-positive was negatively associated with successful treatment outcomes, and sputum positive was independently associated with successful tuberculosis treatment outcomes.

Keywords: treatment outcome, tuberculosis, patient, Ethiopia


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